The Maa-nulth First Nations Final Agreement, signed in 2011, is a historic treaty between the Government of Canada and five First Nations communities located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The agreement is the result of over a decade of negotiations and is an important step towards reconciliation and self-determination for Indigenous peoples in Canada.

The Maa-nulth Final Agreement recognizes the rights of the Maa-nulth First Nations to their lands, resources, and self-government. This includes the right to manage and protect their traditional territories, participate in the management of provincial and federal lands and resources, and maintain their cultural and spiritual practices.

In addition, the agreement provides for the transfer of over 24,000 hectares of land to the Maa-nulth First Nations, as well as millions of dollars in funding to support their economic and social development. This includes investments in areas such as education, healthcare, housing, and infrastructure.

One of the key components of the agreement is the establishment of a new governance structure for the Maa-nulth First Nations. This includes a system of elected chiefs and councillors, a constitution, and the ability to make and enforce laws within their territories. This represents a significant shift towards self-determination and self-governance for Indigenous peoples in Canada, and is a major step forward in the reconciliation process.

The Maa-nulth Final Agreement also contains provisions for the protection and management of natural resources within the Maa-nulth First Nations territories. This includes measures to protect fish stocks, forestry resources, and wildlife habitats, as well as the establishment of new parks and protected areas.

Overall, the Maa-nulth First Nations Final Agreement represents a significant milestone in the relationship between Indigenous peoples and the Canadian government. It recognizes the rights and aspirations of the Maa-nulth First Nations to self-determination and self-government, and provides a framework for the sustainable management of their lands and resources. As Canada continues to work towards reconciliation with Indigenous peoples, the Maa-nulth Final Agreement serves as an important example of what can be achieved through respectful and collaborative negotiations.